Know! Logic Model and Evaluation
Logic Model & Evaluation
Youth from homes where they learn about the negative effects of substances from their parents, and where clear expectations are given regarding their use, are 50% less likely to use (Partnership Attitude Tracking Survey, The Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 2005).
Prevention research shows the value of engaging parents in alcohol, tobacco and other drug prevention with their children. Yet parents are difficult to reach especially with today’s busy schedules. Often when communities plan parent education events, a small percentage of the parents who are targeted attend. KNOW!, a program of Drug Free Action Alliance, provides community coalitions, schools, and parent-serving agencies with a concrete way to reach parents on an on-going basis, providing parents with many opportunities to receive updated, research-based information.
KNOW! targets parents of middle school aged youth (approximately 11-13 years old) and empowers them to raise their children alcohol, tobacco and other drug-free. Each month, parents receive two KNOW! Parent Tips, which provide current facts related to substance use, healthy youth development and other related issues, as well as concrete action steps they can take to help prevent their child from using.
Below is the KNOW! Logic Model which outlines the short, intermediate and long-term outcomes KNOW! is designed to achieve, as well as the overall impacts we are working toward to reduce substance abuse among youth.
Over the years, the KNOW! program evaluation design has changed as the program grew and changed. In 2001, KNOW! was launched as a local program by the United Way of Central Ohio, and was in a few targeted schools. In 2005, the program was moved to Drug Free Action Alliance with the hopes of simultaneously expanding utilization among schools in the local area and statewide. Eventually, requests came in from other states and now KNOW! Parent Tips are available nationally.
Before the initial local community launch in 2001, an outside evaluation and research team was identified to design the evaluation and conduct a county-wide baseline survey. Then, in 2003 & 2005 the evaluation team surveyed two comparison communities, one suburban and one inner-city. And in 2006, a new baseline was done before the program expanded into four new local school communities.
In 2008, after United Way changed its funding priorities for the Central Ohio area, the KNOW! Program could no longer support the outside evaluation and research plan, and the evaluation was brought in-house and is now an annual survey of parents receiving the tips regardless of their geographic location.
What we learned from the early evaluation and research on KNOW!:
Perception their child is at risk for substance abuse: From 2001 to 2005, parents in the suburban test community showed a statistically significant increase in their perception of risk. Parents in the inner-city test community showed an initial increase in 2003 that did not continue in 2005. However, the parents in the inner-city test community had started with a higher perceived risk at baseline (ranging from 10 – 26 percentage points higher depending on the substance), showing they already felt more strongly that substance use has negative consequences and poses a threat to their child.
Number of conversations: From 2001 to 2005, the inner-city test community showed a clear increase in the number and frequency of conversations parents had with their children about alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. However, the suburban test community did not show a significant change.
Why these differences?
The inner-city parents (1) were more likely to report personal involvement, i.e real-life or personally relevant conversational triggers (such as use by friends/relatives, saw a stranger using, neighborhood issues arising); (2) scored higher in their attitude knowledge, i.e. having the information necessary to protect their child; and (3) scored higher in their attitude certainty, i.e. in their ability to know if their child was using.
While perception of risk did go up among the suburban parents, the number of conversations did not increase with it. The researchers concluded that parental action is tied to an emotional feeling of risk, more than a cognitive understanding of risk. This feeling of risk translates into changes in behavior when appropriate action steps are provided that can reduce the likelihood of negative consequences. When this occurs, attitude-behavior consistency results.
The link between prevention attitudes and behaviors among the inner-city parents was virtually absent in 2001, and over time, KNOW! strengthened this link.
Insights gained 2006:
Many parents report discomfort when talking to their child about alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
However, those parents who have a high enough perception of risk will talk anyway, even when discomfort levels are high.
Talking with a child need not be a comfortable experience, but it does need to be done effectively.
KNOW! Parent Tips must encourage parents to “push through” feelings of discomfort.
What KNOW! parents tell us:
Since 2008, Drug Free Action Alliance has been annually surveying parents who receive KNOW! Parent Tips. Results from the parent survey are used to ensure parents are receiving the type of information they need.
Results of the 2012 parent survey:
The first goal of KNOW! is to increase parental knowledge of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
93% of survey respondents agreed they have learned something new about alcohol, tobacco or other drugs as a result of receiving KNOW! Parent Tips.
Additionally, 89% of respondents placed KNOW! as one of their top means of receiving updated information for talking with their children.
The second goal of KNOW! is to increase parental awareness that their child is at risk for using alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
94% of survey respondents agreed KNOW! Parent Tips have increased their awareness of the risk of their child using alcohol, tobacco or other drugs.
The third goal of KNOW! is to increase the number of conversations parents have with their children about alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.
80% of survey respondents agreed they have increased the number of conversations since receiving KNOW! Parent Tips.
75% of survey respondents stated that as a result of receiving KNOW! Parent Tips, they have taken other action steps to keep their child drug-free.
Additionally, 88% said they have learned new ways to keep their children from using alcohol, tobacco and other drugs as a result of receiving KNOW! Parent Tips.
Drug Free Action Alliance is also proud to share that overall,
96% of survey participants found KNOW! Parent Tips to be helpful in keeping their children substance-free.